Friday, May 31, 2019

Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony Essay -- essays papers

Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony In Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony, the gender roles of three women atomic number 18 hearty to the development of Tayo as being half-white and half-Indian. These three women are Tayos birth mother, Auntie, and Old Grandma. His mother left him when he was four years old and that began his awareness of amour propre and abandonment. She could not bear to raise a child that brought the reservation shame by her mistake. Auntie raised Tayo and was the mother figure he lacked. She willingly recognised to take him, but only to conceal the shame of her younger sister (29). Auntie was always hesitant toward Tayo as he was not her accepted boy and was also a half-breed. For Tayo, this only added to his feeling of displacement and emptiness. She would give her affection and ... Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony Essay -- essays papersLeslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony In Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony, the gender roles of three women are sign ificant to the development of Tayo as being half-white and half-Indian. These three women are Tayos birth mother, Auntie, and Old Grandma. His mother left him when he was four years old and that began his sense of emptiness and abandonment. She could not bear to raise a child that brought the reservation shame by her mistake. Auntie raised Tayo and was the mother figure he lacked. She willingly accepted to take him, but only to conceal the shame of her younger sister (29). Auntie was always hesitant toward Tayo as he was not her real son and was also a half-breed. For Tayo, this only added to his feeling of displacement and emptiness. She would give her affection and ...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Mutations of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene are Associated with Amyotrop

Recent studies have provided some insight for the possible causes of the familial type of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). This disease occurs only in 10% of the known cases of ALS with the sporadic, non-hereditary form being predominant 7, 9. ALS in global has an occurrence of 0.4 to 1.8 per 100,000 live births 1. ALS has been called Lou Gehrigs disease, Charcots disease and motor neuron disease in other literature 4. ALS is a neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons that can manifest in such a way that it can be misdiagnosed. Such studys include respiratory muscles with initial diagnosis of asthma, or even psychological problems that appear as a dementia 7. The primary manifestations ar not restricted to any certain area of the body. FALS is inherited autosomally as a dominant trait 9,12,13,17. It exhibits heterogeneity and may not be present in a consecutive generation 1. It is diagnosed normally near the age of fifty and ranges from 20-72 years 9,17. Mos t patients are given a prognosis of 5 years of life after diagnosis 5. It has as well been proposed that the juvenile form may be recessive. There is a predominance of maternal transmission in later onset and paternal transmission in early onset 9. The bulk of this paper will deal with the SOD1 gene mutations as the proposed cause for some types of FALS. Many other hypothesis have been create and will be briefly addressed at this point. Autoimmune disease and mutations in the glutamate receptor are other proposed causes. Autoimmune disease has been studied as a possible agent for the cause of FALS 6. Supportive evidence includes the want of IgG1 or IgG3 or both in 16/25 observed patients subclass deficiency could... .... 12. Maurelli, M., Marchioni, E. Familial adult amyotrophic lateral sclerosis report of cases. Ital. J. Neurol. Sci., 1992, 1375-79. 13. Mulder, D. W., Kurland, L. T. Familial adult motor neuron disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology, Apr 1986, 36511-51 7. 14. Norris, F. H.., Burns, W. Spinal changeful cells and protein in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Arch. Neurol., May 1993, 50489-491. 15. Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B. IgG subclass deficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neurol. Scand., 1993, 87192-194. 16. Rosen, O. R,, Siddiquem T. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature, 4Mar 1993, 36259-62. 17. Strong, M. J., Hudson, A. J. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 1850-1989 A statistical analysis of the world literature. Can. J. Neural. Sci., 1991, 18 45-58.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Farmland Preservation :: Farming Agriculture Conservation Essays

Farmland Preservation Farmland Preservation is something that every person in overbold Jersey should be advised of. Our Garden State is quickly becoming too populated to hold such a title anymore. As more and more farms disappear, we are losing the cute land and culture, which initially made so many people decide to make New Jersey home. Everyone seems to want to move to the country and away from the city, tho soon New Jersey may no longer have the attractive countryside landscape it was once so well known for. The people of New Jersey need to be made awake of what is happening to the landscape and need to realize what their individual impact is on that landscape. The Farmland Preservation plan was officially established with the Agricultural Retention Act of 1983 and the Right to Farm Act of 1983 (1). The program is administered by the State Agricultural Development Committee (SADC), which consists of 11 members all representing the state and genera l existences interests on several levels including, agriculture and the environment (1). The main objective of the program is to try and protect farmland from development, whether it is a short time or long time effect. The program buys the development rights from the farmers so as to try and ease the pressure put on them from developers to sell the land entirely to be broken up and developed. Farmland in general has so many benefits for both the farmer and the general public to consider. It is part of our culture here in New Jersey, in fact 75% of the US public agrees that, Protecting the environment is so important that requirements and standards cannot be too high (4). Now, that is a lot of people who are in agreement but now maybe they need to be made aware what they can do to help and what it takes to agree with that statement and mean it. Farms contribute in a big way to the American Dream and the quality of intent people assume when they say t hey want to move out the country.

Birth Order Essay -- essays research papers

Sigmeund Freud was the first psychotherapist to say "a childs position in the sequence of companion and sisters is of very great significance for star course of his later life" (Richardson 12). Ones wear order position (whether born first, second, last, etc.), ones sex (male or female), and the sex of ones siblings affects the motley of person one becomes. People often say they cant understand "how people from the same family can be so different". What they do not actualize is that each sibling is born into a different family. Each new child needs to create a unique identity separate from the others. except this new identity is created within the context of those who are already there. The people in a family change in many ways between the birth of each new child. Many variables impact on each sibling. These include the physical circumstances in which a family finds itself, (ie. location, income, residents), the emotional stability of the family, (ie. well fami liarised parents, parental experience, settled career), and lastly the state in which they find themselves, (ie. decade, wartime, country). These variables mean that each child will be slightnessed differently by parents and siblings and this is through usually unintentionally. One must remember that birth order does not determine the basic values of a person or the persons value to society. It affects fond interactions more than attitudes and ethnical stances. Your birth order and sex determines in a large part how other people in your family react to you and treat you which in turn influences what you think about yourself and how you react to and treat others inside and outside the family.          Your birth order and gender affect primarily your social behaviour and how you carry on to other people in your life. They affect the way you relate to your spouse, your friends and the skills you bring to parenting. Birth affects what kind of a spouse you will be because of how you grew up. "It is useful to know that something as simple as birth order can account for major conflicts in a relationship and that neither person is to blame" (Richardson 17). When one understands, for example, that an oldest brother of brothers and an oldest sister of sisters are bound to have conflicts over who is in charge, they can stop blaming each... ...table position is that of the all child which usually takes on the role of a firstborn and then some. Hence, an only child is often referred to as the "Super First Born". "It is a scientific fact proven time and again that your position in your family shapes your approach to life" (Leman 9). Your birth order and sex determines a large part how other people in your family react to you and treat you which in turn influences what you think about yourself and how you react to and treat others inside and outside the family. It should also be noted that birth order n ot only affects reactions and behaviour. Ones birth order affects a plethora of things which include ones IQ, consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs, depression and mental illness, and creativity. (Ernst i - v) The topic birth order has proven to be very interesting and educational. It is amazing and fun to know more about yourself and your siblings through the order in which we were all born. One can only wonder how much ones life is out of ones control by virtue of being born first, middle or last. Does birth order really determine who one is or will become or do other factors come into play?

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Shiloh Essay -- essays research papers

The Second Battle of battle of ShilohThe switch to college life can definitely change people. In high school, hotshot makesfriends that will hopefully last a lifetime. Then comes senior year, and later all the collegeadmissions letters defecate been received, one must face the realization that his/her surmountfriends will not be by their side 24 hours a day / 7 days a week any acheer. Still rapturous bywhat this new life, college, holds for them, students enter into their chosen institute ofhigher learning. Do you remember that first break, or long weekend, that brings everyoneback to the place where they grew up? Its a chance to look back and catch up on oldtimes, even though youve only been separated for a month or two. Whether climaxhome from UGA, Tech, or even some out-of-state college, that drive home gives one timeto reflect. Will my friends who I graduated with be the same friends who I hold out andlove? Like I said, college alters people, and the first time you see old friends, you mightrealize that your best friends are not who they once were. Although painful, this is a serve well that is natural. Friends change, and friends move on with their lives, regardless ofyour presence. On a larger scale, this is the dilemma brought to the readers attention byBobbie Ann Mason, author of Shiloh.In Masons Shiloh, Leroy and Norma Jean Moffitt are a married couple living inPaducah, Kentucky. Leroy has spent the past 15 years driving a tractor-trailer across thecountry. foursome months ago, Leroy was moved in a highway accident that required steelpins to be placed in his hip. He returned home to rest and rehabilitate his leg. He isconfined to his house, something that he hasnt seen for an extended period since hesbeen on the road. Like a college student, this is Leroys long weekend. Leroy comeshome to his wife, Norma Jean, hoping that she will be the same person he left many yearsbefore. Unfortunately for Leroy, Norma Jean has moved on with her life, much likefriends who move on after high school graduation. Leroy would like for things to be theway they were, but Norma Jean has chosen a different course in her life that doesntinvolve Leroy. She works at the Rexall Drug Store, loves to play music, and is takingclasses in compo stupefyion at Paducah Community College. Bobbie A... ...se. Leroy knows that something has to be done to save hismarriage. Mabel, Leroys mother-in-law, suggests they take a trip to Shiloh, a Civil Warbattleground. This is ready-made symbolism. A battling couple takes a trip to a famousbattleground. Looking for a place to picnic, they sit down next to a cemetery for UnionSoldiers, which symbolizes the death of their life together as husband and wife. She tellsLeroy that she is leaving him and when she walks toward the bluff overlooking theTennessee River, Leroy tries to follow. His good leg, even is asleep, and his bad legstill hurts him. This symbolizes that he will never catch her. She has her own life and he isstuck in the same place.In conclusion, I have personally experienced the loss of a friend after we bothembarked on different paths. Although we were the best of friends in high school, whenthe time came on that long weekend to hang out, we didnt even pick up the phone to seewhat the other was doing. Although its natural to move in different directions, it still hurtsto no longer have that friend in your life any longer, just like it hurts Leroy not to haveNorma Jean

Shiloh Essay -- essays research papers

The Second Battle of battle of Pittsburgh LandingThe switch to college life can by all odds change people. In high school, oneness makesfriends that will hopefully last a lifetime. Then comes senior year, and after all the collegeadmissions letters have been received, one must face the realization that his/her bestfriends will not be by their side 24 hours a day / 7 days a week any giganticer. Still ecstatic bywhat this new life, college, holds for them, students enter into their chosen institute ofhigher learning. Do you remember that first break, or long weekend, that brings everyoneback to the place where they grew up? Its a chance to look back and catch up on oldtimes, even though youve only been garbled for a month or two. Whether cominghome from UGA, Tech, or even some out-of-state college, that drive home gives one timeto reflect. Will my friends who I receive with be the same friends who I know andlove? Like I said, college alters people, and the first time you see old friends, you mightrealize that your best friends be not who they once were. Although painful, this is aprocess that is natural. Friends change, and friends resettlement on with their lives, regardless ofyour presence. On a larger scale, this is the dilemma brought to the readers attention byBobbie Ann Mason, author of Shiloh.In Masons Shiloh, Leroy and Norma denim Moffitt are a married couple living inPaducah, Kentucky. Leroy has spent the past 15 geezerhood driving a tractor-trailer across thecountry. Four months ago, Leroy was involved in a highway accident that required steelpins to be placed in his hip. He returned home to rest and rehabilitate his leg. He isconfined to his house, something that he hasnt seen for an extended period since hesbeen on the road. Like a college student, this is Leroys long weekend. Leroy comeshome to his wife, Norma Jean, hoping that she will be the same person he left many yearsbefore. Unfortunately for Leroy, Norma Jean has moved on with her lif e, such(prenominal) likefriends who move on after high school graduation. Leroy would like for things to be theway they were, but Norma Jean has chosen a different air in her life that doesntinvolve Leroy. She works at the Rexall Drug Store, loves to play music, and is takingclasses in composition at Paducah Community College. Bobbie A... ...se. Leroy knows that something has to be make to save hismarriage. Mabel, Leroys mother-in-law, suggests they take a trip to Shiloh, a Civil Warbattleground. This is ready-made symbolism. A battling couple takes a trip to a knownbattleground. Looking for a place to picnic, they sit down next to a cemetery for UnionSoldiers, which symbolizes the death of their life together as husband and wife. She tellsLeroy that she is leave him and when she walks toward the bluff overlooking theTennessee River, Leroy tries to follow. His good leg, however is asleep, and his bad legstill hurts him. This symbolizes that he will never catch her. She has her own life and he isstuck in the same place.In conclusion, I have personally experienced the loss of a friend after we bothembarked on different paths. Although we were the best of friends in high school, whenthe time came on that long weekend to hang out, we didnt even pick up the phone to seewhat the other was doing. Although its natural to move in different directions, it still hurtsto no longer have that friend in your life any longer, just like it hurts Leroy not to haveNorma Jean

Monday, May 27, 2019

Computers, calculators, and tablets Essay

Conditional Statement If students ar allowed to use technology such as computers, calculators, and t fitts, they will be subject to develop a deeper sagaciousness of the math concepts presented within their course.Inverse Statement If students are non allowed to use technology such as computers, calculators, and tablets, then they would not be able to develop a deeper soul of the math concepts presented within their course.Converse Statement Students will be able to develop a deeper understanding of the math concepts presented within their course, if they are allowed to use technology such as computers, calculators, and tablets.Contrapositive Statement Students will not be able to develop a deeper understanding of the math concepts presented within their course, if they are not allowed to use technology such as computers, calculators, and tablets.Mobile phones, tablets and computers in classrooms? Sounds silly, but more students will be able to develop a mathematical concepts pr esented in their courses and have a deeper understanding if they are allowed to use the technology. These electronic tools have become such an important power of our society. Todays technology can improve education, engage more students, and help us prepare them for the future. Technology can help students develop finished exploration and research to better learning skills. Students who collect information from the Internet tend to be more independent and do not need to swear on the teacher as much. Students can also create their own understanding of a subject, so it is easy for teachers to understand the students knowledge. Technology allows students to focus on one thing instead of multiple books and papers.With more and more visual presentations and lectures there will be more flexibility for students to participate. In order for students to be able to give their 100% the lessons presentations should be with the latest technology so they can really understand it. By using tech nology in the classroom students will discover the crucial thinking and workplace skills they will need in order to be successful in the future. In the workplace, the computers are universeused every day so letting them work on them now will help them prepare for the future. Of course, there will always be some technical negative aspects for use in the classroom, such as non-school-related activities, and misuse of the Internet. However, in most cases, pros largely overthrow the cons. Most of the negative aspects are only minor problems that can be fixed with some guidance.Researched Websites http//ww.shelbyed.k12.al.us/schools/rns/faculty/wrodgers/technology%20int/students.htmlHttp//nms.org/Blog/Tabld/58/Postld/188/technology-in-the-classroom-the-benefits-of-blended-learning.aspxPart 3 If you were a geometry teacher, would you allow students addition to electronics cunnings during class? What types of electronic devices would you let them use or not use? What evidence can you us e to support your claim if a parent questions your end as the teacher? Would your students be allowed to use their electronic devices during tests? What would you do for students that do not have their own electronic devices?If I were a geometry teacher I would definitely allow my students access to electronic devices, departd they are on my terms. I think I could help my students with their homework and help me as a teacher to present lessons. They would be allowed to use their phones, computers, calculators, etc. These electronic devices are used only for school-related purposes. Evidence that I would use if a parent questioned my decisions as a teacher would be increased knowledge and creativity of my students have gained since I allowed technology. My students are only allowed to use a calculator during tests other electronic device used would be considered cheating. If a student of mine did not have an electronic device on your own I would do everything possible to provide on e for them, because I believe that all students should have the opportunity to use one.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

The Life Of Sigmund Freud and His Articulation Of Theories

Sigmund Freud Probably the roughly influential activist in the realm of the study of the mind, Psychology An put to work so great that his works, ideologies and theories alike hand over compel themselves upon the minds of many in this, the twentieth century, regardless of our acceptance or futile resistance. He was responsible for the articulation of theories and concepts of which everyday various(prenominal)s do not as yet distinguish he is the originator of. Ideologies much(prenominal)(prenominal) as the Un sure, the relevance Sexual and Aggressive Drives under which Infantile Sexuality falls, and the tri-partite mind frame, consisting of the Id, Ego and Super-Ego.Since then, there are septuple manifestations of analysis in a variety of fields which may be traced directly back to Freuds Original work. Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856, in Freiberg, Austria (although it is gainsay that he may have been born on March 6th instead). He was the first of viii children b orn to his mother. At age four, Freud and his family moved to Vienna, where he would live and work until he died. His impact and mark would remain there forever, as he was renown for founding the first Viennese school of psychoanalysis from which all aspects and development in this field then flowed.Freuds pursual and professional training and experience were very broad. Although he was not particularly interested in becoming a physician, Freud saw medicine as a vehicle for engaging in scientific research. After being enrolled at the University of Vienna for eight years (from 1873), Freud graduated and was then engaged in 1882 later to be married in 1886. Many of his theories were based on clinical material record while he operated a private practice to treat psychological disorders.Two individuals who played a significant role in his breeding were jean Charcot and Josef Breuer. Charcot was a French neurologist who used hypnotism to treat psychologically ill patients. Freud atte mpted Charcots methods but were unsuccessful. Breuer was an older Viennese colleague whose methods for treating neuroses, though unique, caught the interest of Freud. Breuer discovered that when he encouraged patients to talk freely without restrictions that he was able to get to the source of the problem causing the symptoms.Freud worked with Breuer and developed the idea that the source of a patients problems was some hidden or un breakd conflict which occurred in their past life, and the cure was achieved by get downing that conflict to the clients consciousness in a direction in which he/she might intellectually and emotionally confront it. At the turn of the 20th Century, Freud, after a period of self-analysis, published works such as The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Three essays on the Theory of sexuality (1905) and Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916).Freuds theories on Sexuality received the most resistance and caused man y of his partnerships with other philosophers to deteriorate. The final and yet not any less significant of his works was his model of the mind, consisting of the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. After a life of remarkable vigour and creative productivity, he died of cancer while exiled in England in 1939. It is interesting to note that although he carried out many self-analytic tests, that he was ineffective to resolve his addiction to cigarette smoking the very habit that eventually killed him.Although Freud was an original thinker, there were still influences which shaped the development of his thought. For instance, his relationship with Charcot and Breuer definitely squeeze upon his thoughts but rather differently, Freuds self-analysis was probably the greatest impact of all on his life. In this period, several repulsive and yet real facts about Freud book of facts and past were revealed to him. These true statements were related to his emotions towards members of his family in the a spects of sexuality and hatred and the results thereof.This was to become the basis of his theory of the Oedipus complex. The Scientific climate in which Freud existed in also had great influence on his thought. For instance, Charles Darwins perception of man, was a life shaking event for people of that time, now making it possible to treat humans as objects of Scientific investigation. Freud with his ample esteem for science, accepted this implicitly. Another important aspect of Science that impacted on his thoughts was the principle of the conservation of energy Helmholz stating that energy can neither be created or destroyed but only change in form.Freud then concluded that in parallel with this principle, humans consisted of psychic energy. Repression and Suppression are devil examples of how Freud believed that this psychical energy may be represented. Freuds works and ideas are vast, but among these there are some which the basis of many of his theories are grounded. This i s based on Freuds idea that all human actions are a manifestation or a representation of some hidden desire or impulse. Events become conscious when unconscious matter arises into a level of awareness for an individual and then may sink into a state of unconsciousness again.This theory follows that whenever we make a decision, we are governed by a hidden mental process of which we are unaware and have no control. The question arises therefore, do people truly have free will? Freud deeply associated the unconscious with instincts and drives, categorizing those drives into sexual desire (the life instinct) and Thanatos (the death instinct). Sexuality (any pleasure which can be derived out of the body) is derived out of Eros while Thanatos is the opposite, the urge to destroy any source of sexuality.Freud determined that through satisfaction, or lack thereof, of sexual satisfaction through childhood stages, the individual would develop into a correspondingly appropriate adult. These st ages are The Oral Stage satisfaction from sucking, The Anal Stage satisfaction from releasing excrete or urine, The phallic Stage- interest in genital region (Oedipus Complex may also develop here hatred of a parent of the same sex), latent period less pronounced sexual motivation and The Genital stage- genital region becomes focus of stimulation and satisfaction.Freud believed that (in)appropriate treatment is responsible for forming the resulting image of the individuals character and personality. Freud severalize three structural elements which framed the mind. They are the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. The Id represents the instinctual sexual drives which acquire satisfaction. The Super-Ego represents the conscience which restricts us from satisfying the desires of the Id. The Super-Ego however is shaped by social influence, such as parents.The Ego is the conscious self-created as a balance between the ever struggling fight between the Id and Super-Ego for dominance. The Id and Super-Ego reside in the unconscious. Failure of the Id and Super-Ego to resolve conflict may later form neurosis resulting in the activation of defense mechanisms such as repression, sublimation, fixation and regression. The main purpose of this treatment was to bring harmony within the frame or structure of the human mind by resolving unconscious repressed & unresolved conflicts.Freud allowed clients to lay on a sofa and encouraged them to express themselves freely (through free association), hence to some degree disarming the Super-Ego. By analyzing slips of the tongue dreams and other means of preparation Freud believed that one can discern the underlying/unconscious forces lying behind the expression. The next step was to bring the client to a point of self-understanding and assist them in dealing with their past and find a way curing themselves of some neuroses by suppressing it.Of this, I would now like to make special points in expiration to all the materials which I have r esearched. Firstly, can these theories be proven to be strongly coherent? This issue has been one of great controversy but the truth is, there is no direct significant or proving link of any of Freud theories other than the variable behaviour patterns of individuals of which any other theories may be attributed. For instance, in science where a cause Y is unobservable (radio waves) there are still clear corresponding rules connecting the unobservable cause to an observable phenomenon.However, this is not the case with Freuds theories, and in truth the theories are exactly what I earlier declared them as, Ideologies, having absolutely no factual evidence to support them. More importantly however, is the impact of his ideologies on the world today. As Psychoanalytic therapy is in use today, the use of free association and revealing repressed conflicts for intellectual assistance and management seems to be get ahead detrimental to certain relationships in the United States instead of positively influential.Many people have recovered memories of sexual abuse by parents and others which were actually delusive and were some form of a fantasy. Children and adults alike have sued their parents and the parents in turn sued their children and the conflicts continue to develop. Even when patients are cured successfully, statistics prove that these methods of therapy do not outperform other methods. So then is it really that efficient? Doesnt it seem fair also to say that their cure is non-existent and that they can only direct that Psychic energy to a different form?Why also is not possible for that form of energy to be reverted to its previous state? It then appears that even if this form of therapy was plausible, it really cannot be proven to be steadfast or efficient. Regardless however, one cannot deny Freuds innovative and creative perceptions and thoughts and should in fact seek to see how we can abstract good and gain a greater understanding of behaviour not on ly of others but most importantly, ourselves.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Essay on Plants on Earth

Plants and humans are perhaps the most important organisms, however, us humans, have caused the death of thousands of comprises by starting fires and by trendting down trees for things such as paper and furniture. Plants make oxygen which is very important for our survival we jakest live without it. In the social class 2003 alone, 774500 acres of land, that contained not only threes but animals too, were burned in California (Jane Strong, 2003). Some of this land was burned due to natural fires but some of it was belike cause by humans that werent careful enough.These fires do only kill threes and animals sometimes even other people are harmed. People also cut down threes to make furniture and other things needed for construction. As I look around my house I can see that a skunk of the things I have, are made of wood. The chair Im sitting on, the pencils I use to write, the dining table, and even the house is made of wood. It was then that I thought about(predicate) how many t hrees had to be cut down just to make my house. How many threes had to be cut down to make all of the houses in Arlington.People also redundancy a lot of paper without thinking that they are killing threes people should recycle and think twice when they waste paper. As the effect of people in the world increases, the need for wood increases too. Food companies as well as the companies who cut down threes need to look for ways to make plants grown double-quick in order to satisfy the need for wood. People have to grow a higher number of plants than the number they cut down. This is necessary because if they number of plants in the world is too low there would be too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere this would be harmful to us because they air would be contaminated.Many food companies use chemicals to make their plants grow faster they also use chemicals to make their plants stronger against insects and some diseases. Some people do not want to buy these products because they think that they do not have as many nutrients and vitamins as they would have if they would have been pissing supply with normal water. Plants have to be watered with water that has no chemicals. This is good because it ensures that the water doesnt have any chemicals that could harm the consumers and that they would be natural.These chemicals sometimes change the taste of the vegetables or fruits. Plants need water so they can grow. Its very possible that the type of water that is used to water the plant may affect the growth rate of the plants. Finding the appropriate type of water would be a great help for farmers who want their plants to grow as fast as possible. The type of water that is used to water a plant is an important factor. This may be what the companies that make vegetables and the companies that cut down threes might want to change, in order to make all of the plants grow faster.This would be a great help for them because it would give them the opportunity to prod uce more threes without harming the environment. Finding a way to make plants grow faster without using chemicals is something people should be concerned about, because its plants that give us the air we breathe. Plants are also a very important source of food. If the right type of water is be bring the plant growth would be increased, therefore the number of plants would increase and the food as well as the wood companies wouldnt have to worry bout the number of threes.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Economic Problem

Along with the assumement of the earth is a series of social events need to be addressed, such as population maturement, food shortages and pee shortages in many parts of the initiation. Specifically, great deal in Australia are facing with the threat of urine supply shortage in the future. This difficulty has created an economic line and urged the Australian government to find the solutions for this problem.This essay ordain explain the economic problem and answer the question how do merchandises attempt to lap the problem of body of water scarceness in Australia, focusing on the economic problem, water scarcity in Australia, the use of markets and water market in Australia. The economic problem stinkpot be cognize as the competition between unlimited wishs and barely resources. Unlimited wants are adepts and services that volume want to chip in are unlimited. But, scarce resources, things to open products, are limited. Because peoples want hobonot be sati sfied while resources needed to satisfy these wants is scarce, limited.Bized (n. d) points out that because our bullion is limited, we cannot queer anything we want. Moreover, the scarcity of water is an economic problem. Water is a very significant part in our life, because everyone and everything in this world cannot live without water. However, population growth, intensifier agricultural development, urbanization, industrial growth and environment requirements are all increase pick up for water. Not only that, the percentage of fresh water in the world is 3%, while 97% is salty water and it also cannot be reused or re tonicable.Water is the main source of living things, so the earth will become dry as a planet in space if it has no water. So that this economic problem needs to be unclutter. In addition, the add-on in get of water use and reduce water avail king is a problem in Australia. Between 1983 and 1997, 9400 GL water use is increasing every year (NLWRA 2001 cited in Australian organisation). According to the Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists (1965), excessive use of water work ons the water become scarce in the future. In a word, water is in scarcity.In target to solve the economic problem, we must choose how to use our scarce resources efficiently. If the choices are made, sources can be used efficiently. For instance, the Australian Governments is restoring the Balance in the Murray-Darling wash-hand stand to keep the water in this basin and protect the environment. They are making decision since the water is scarce. Australian Governments (2010) showed that water which operable in Murray-Darling Basin declines, so this basin is likely to become worse. The problem is water in Australia is not unlimited. We therefore have to make choices.The choice can be known as opportunity cost. Since we never have enough resources at our disposal, we have to give up something in order to get other thing we want. For example, Morton and Shippen have to make the decision between selling water to the government or keeping the water for their using and their agriculture. If they decide to keep the water, the money from selling water is forgone and vice-versa. So, scarcity forces making choice. The role of market can help solving the economic problem. A market can be known as an actual address where buyers and sellers interact to trade goods, services for money.They interact in the market to determine the price. The diagram shows the way market finds the price for water. At point E, bar needed equals quantity supplied and the price of goods that customers are willing and able to buy equals the price of goods that sellers are willing and able to sell. The market price helps to solve the economic problem because people who want to get the goods or services have to be willing and able to pay the price. This means price addresses the 4 production decisions What to amaze? How to produce? , How much to produce? and To whom di stribute? . For example, if the price of water increases, people and farmers will use water much efficiently. Price can control the demand of goods and services, because sacking with the increasing of price is the decline of demand. Customers always look at the price before deciding to buy a good and when the price is high, customers want is less. In this diagram below, the Production Possibility Frontier curve has shifted to the right because of the decreasing in water and increasing in demand. When the price is Pe, demand is greater than supply. This means there is a shortage of water in the market.Then market increased the price to Pe1, demand now declines with the point Qe1. In addition, the supply also can be controlled by the price. If the price increases, supply will be affected by demand and it also decreases. Because demand decreases, less goods are produced to correspond to demand, sellers will sell less and make supply decreases. So, the economic problem can be single -minded by the role of markets and market prices. In this Production Possibility Frontier, supply curve has shifted to the left. Price has increased from Pe to Pe1 and the quantity of water was decreased in order to establish a new equilibrium. picWater in Australia is declining day by day by many. But these factors are the key element of the development in a country. So, Australian Government plans to create the water market to buy- back the water from irrigators looking to sell. In this market, water is a commodity that can be bought and sold between customers and sellers. Specifically, Australian Governments plan is restoring the balance in Murray-Darling Basin. The purpose of this program is using the water purchase from irrigators restores the environment (Australian Government- 2010). The water buy-back also will be used in the future to protect future living standards.Another way to solve water scarcity in Australia is limited the amount of water use by increasing the water p rice. In this situation, price of water will be increased to reduce peoples demand, so that they may use water more efficiently. However, price of water also reduce the supply of water because of the limitation in water use. The problem of water scarcity in Australia has forced the Government making choice, the choice between using money to buy-back water for the plan water for the proximo and using money for develop the country. But, at the end, the government realized that water is our future.In conclusion, economic problem is our want for goods and services to consume is greater than our ability to produce those goods and services, because of unlimited want and scarce resources. Moreover, the economic problem in Australia is water scarcity. It happened as people need and cannot live without water, while water is scarce and cannot be reused or renewable. This problem is not only about the scarce of water, but also about the existence of humans life and environment. Therefore, th e role of water market was assemble to solve this problem. In water market, price control the demand and supply of water, so it can be used more efficiently.Economic ProblemAlong with the development of the earth is a series of social events need to be addressed, such as population growth, food shortages and water shortages in many parts of the world. Specifically, people in Australia are facing with the threat of water shortage in the future. This problem has created an economic problem and urged the Australian government to find the solutions for this problem.This essay will explain the economic problem and answer the question how do markets attempt to solve the problem of water scarcity in Australia, focusing on the economic problem, water scarcity in Australia, the role of markets and water market in Australia. The economic problem can be known as the competition between unlimited wants and scarce resources. Unlimited wants are goods and services that people want to have are un limited. But, scarce resources, things to make products, are limited. Because peoples want cannot be satisfied while resources needed to satisfy these wants is scarce, limited.Bized (n. d) points out that because our money is limited, we cannot get everything we want. Moreover, the scarcity of water is an economic problem. Water is a very significant part in our life, because everyone and everything in this world cannot live without water. However, population growth, intensive agricultural development, urbanization, industrial growth and environment requirements are all increasing demand for water. Not only that, the percentage of fresh water in the world is 3%, while 97% is salty water and it also cannot be reused or renewable.Water is the main source of living things, so the earth will become dry as a planet in space if it has no water. So that this economic problem needs to be solve. In addition, the increase in demand of water use and reduce water availability is a problem in Au stralia. Between 1983 and 1997, 9400 GL water use is increasing every year (NLWRA 2001 cited in Australian Government). According to the Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists (1965), excessive use of water makes the water become scarce in the future. In a word, water is in scarcity.In order to solve the economic problem, we must choose how to use our scarce resources efficiently. If the choices are made, sources can be used efficiently. For instance, the Australian Governments is restoring the Balance in the Murray-Darling Basin to keep the water in this basin and protect the environment. They are making decision since the water is scarce. Australian Governments (2010) showed that water which available in Murray-Darling Basin declines, so this basin is likely to become worse. The problem is water in Australia is not unlimited. We therefore have to make choices.The choice can be known as opportunity cost. Since we never have enough resources at our disposal, we have to give up some thing in order to get another thing we want. For example, Morton and Shippen have to make the decision between selling water to the government or keeping the water for their using and their agriculture. If they decide to keep the water, the money from selling water is forgone and vice-versa. So, scarcity forces making choice. The role of market can help solving the economic problem. A market can be known as an actual place where buyers and sellers interact to trade goods, services for money.They interact in the market to determine the price. The diagram shows the way market finds the price for water. At point E, quantity demanded equals quantity supplied and the price of goods that customers are willing and able to buy equals the price of goods that sellers are willing and able to sell. The market price helps to solve the economic problem because people who want to get the goods or services have to be willing and able to pay the price. This means price addresses the 4 production dec isions What to produce? How to produce? , How much to produce? and To whom distribute? . For example, if the price of water increases, people and farmers will use water more efficiently. Price can control the demand of goods and services, because going with the increasing of price is the decline of demand. Customers always look at the price before deciding to buy a good and when the price is high, customers want is less. In this diagram below, the Production Possibility Frontier curve has shifted to the right because of the decreasing in water and increasing in demand. When the price is Pe, demand is greater than supply. This means there is a shortage of water in the market.Then market increased the price to Pe1, demand now declines with the point Qe1. In addition, the supply also can be controlled by the price. If the price increases, supply will be affected by demand and it also decreases. Because demand decreases, fewer goods are produced to correspond to demand, sellers will s ell less and make supply decreases. So, the economic problem can be solved by the role of markets and market prices. In this Production Possibility Frontier, supply curve has shifted to the left. Price has increased from Pe to Pe1 and the quantity of water was decreased in order to establish a new equilibrium. picWater in Australia is declining day by day by many. But these factors are the key element of the development in a country. So, Australian Government plans to create the water market to buy- back the water from irrigators looking to sell. In this market, water is a commodity that can be bought and sold between customers and sellers. Specifically, Australian Governments plan is restoring the balance in Murray-Darling Basin. The purpose of this program is using the water purchase from irrigators restores the environment (Australian Government- 2010). The water buy-back also will be used in the future to protect future living standards.Another way to solve water scarcity in Aus tralia is limited the amount of water use by increasing the water price. In this situation, price of water will be increased to reduce peoples demand, so that they may use water more efficiently. However, price of water also reduce the supply of water because of the limitation in water use. The problem of water scarcity in Australia has forced the Government making choice, the choice between using money to buy-back water for the plan water for the Future and using money for develop the country. But, at the end, the government realized that water is our future.In conclusion, economic problem is our want for goods and services to consume is greater than our ability to produce those goods and services, because of unlimited want and scarce resources. Moreover, the economic problem in Australia is water scarcity. It happened as people need and cannot live without water, while water is scarce and cannot be reused or renewable. This problem is not only about the scarce of water, but also a bout the existence of humans life and environment. Therefore, the role of water market was found to solve this problem. In water market, price control the demand and supply of water, so it can be used more efficiently.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Beginning Bodybuilding and Tips on Staying Motivated

The sport of musclebuilding began in the late 1940s, when Joe Weider began his noble endeavor for human physique revolution that would shortly be a ashesbuilding empire. He envisioned bodybuilding as the sport that will epitomize a mans masculinity. Fitness, viands, and Motivation were the arse for the sport of bodybuilding. genius moldiness consider the sport of bodybuilding not as a mere habit but a chance to be the icon of human physique. Every bodybuilder has a headwayset that no ordinary man has. A bodybuilder doesnt perceive every workout as a routine but as a part of his well-being.Every workout that a bodybuilder does is like breathing for him. It is crucial for him. For one to begin his bodybuilding aspiration, he should find a nearby gym which he can engage himself into various bodybuilding techniques. A neophyte bodybuilder has to be nonsymbiotic inside the gym. Everything should be self-learned yet it wont hurt to ask an initial training program from a trainer. Fr om there on, you should be on your have got inside the gym. Being independent is one of your motivations to succeed in the sport of bodybuilding. Each body part you train is crucial because it complements all your former(a)(a) workouts.For instance, you must train your triceps in order of magnitude to achieve a good lift on chest workouts. Always bear in mind that your program is integrated. One cannot always train for one body part most of the time. Train all body parts and you will achieve progress. Furthermore, bodybuilding supplements will call forth your performance and progress throughout your bodybuilding career. One must know what supplement to consume to complement his desired physique. If your program is bulking up, you should have a whey Protein, Creatine, and Nitric Oxide for you to achieve your goal of acquiring enormous muscles.Protein is a staple in bulking up, so your body should be getting enough protein than the usual. This is crucial for your body to be in a n anabolic state. It means that even if you are not training, your muscles are spontaneously growing. Remember that your muscles are eating as well. On the other hand, Fat Burner supplements are only to be used whenever a bodybuilder intends to prepare for a bodybuilding competition. A bodybuilder is hell-bent on getting ripped for him to showcase his muscle definition. He does this by reducing water intake, as well as assuming a low carbohydrate and high protein diet..Most bodybuilders take a respite in taking supplements for them to detoxify. It is important to know when to use such supplements. Always remember that supplements are for the enhancement of your physique. Yet it must not be your source of motivation. Here are five methods on being consistent and motivated as well 1. Always prioritize fitness among other endeavors. Bodybuilding should be the core of your well-being no matter what crisis you encounter. 2. Consider bodybuilding as a physiological matter. Just like breat hing, Its a matter that you do because you have to and not because you want to.3. Manage your time. Bodybuilding should be prioritized yet moderated. Consider other careers that will enhance your bodybuilding aspirations. 4. Nutrition should always matter. Eat like its your last meal. Enough is never enough. Eat six meals a day. A combination of light and heavy meals, in order to maintain your body in an anabolic state. 5. Be Aggressive. Unleash the warrior instinct in you. Always be independent inside the gym. Bear in mind that whenever you are going to workout, its always a war inside the gym and your ultimate adversary is yourself. Always outlast your previous performance.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Entry Barriers in Liquor Industry

ENTRY BARRIERS IN LIQUOR INDUSTRY When a spick-and-span home enters into an industry it can affect all of the firms that argon currently in that industry. in the buff entrants to an industry bring new capacity, the desire to gain market share, and often substantial resources. Prices can be bid down or incumbents constitute inflated as a result, reducing profitability. 24Therefore as new firms enter into an industry the entire industrys potential for sustained profits is cut back due to the increased amount of competition in that industry. Some f transactionors help reduce the threat of entry as they act as barriers that prevent new firms from entering into an industry.These factors include economies of scale, crop differentiation, capital requirements, access to distribution channels, and regimen regulations. When these factors reduce the threat of entry, the profit potential for the industry increases. Economies of Scale. Economies of scale is defined as the declines in unit costs of a product as the absolute volume per period increase Therefore the greater quantity of a product that is produced the lower the cost of each will be to the producer. This creates an advantage for a high volume producer like those seen in the brewing industry.Economies of scale in the brewing industry also exist in areas other than in production and these include purchasing, distribution, and advertising. For example, national brewers achieve economies of scale in advertising through with(predicate) bulk media purchases and umbrella brand marketing. Local-craft brewers spend more than twice that spent by large brewers on marketing and advertising per barrel. 25 One federation in particular, which is Anheuser-Busch, has done an extremely good job in exploiting the economies of scale that are present in the brewing industry. Anheuser-Busch has been able to leverage its 45 percent U. S. market share into 75 percent of the industrys operating profits through significant econo mies of scale in the areas of raw material procurement, manufacturing cleverness and marketing. 26 As shown here there are substantial economies of scale available in the national beer brewing industry. This is a good factor for firms that are currently in the industry as they can take advantage of these unit cost breaks and while doing so also discourage the entry of new firms into the industry.Product Differentiation. in general, people cannot tell the difference between brands of beer. Second, more expensive brands do not cost proportionately more to make than parsimony beer. Capital Requirements. The capital requirements necessary to compete on the national level against the established firms are extremely high. These high costs of operation and construction expenses act as a barrier to entry for firms that are considering trying to compete in this industry on the highest level. Access to Distribution Channels.When a new firm is trying to enter into an industry it can find tha t existing competitors may have ties with distribution channels based on long relationships. Government Regulation. The governments excise insurance is subject to a lot of sudden changes. The manufacturers sometimes just need to get their L-1 licenses renewed and at times they need to apply afresh, like in the year 2001. In 1993, the L-1 license holders were allowed to set up 5 dedicated shops in Delhi in which they could sell their approved brands in addition to having them sold in the government retail shops. The constitution was withdrawn in an ad-hoc manner in 1994.On being questioned about the effects of this policy, an official in one of the countrys leading breweries verbalise that the introduction of this policy had led to an increase in their revenue by almost 30% which they have lost out on since the policy got crushed. Recently, the governments policy to open up 45 private liquor shops was quashed by the cabinet, because it meant that the MLAs power in the issue of a no -objection certificate for the setting up of a retail outlet would be questioned. Had this policy been implemented, the government would have earned Rs. 7. 5 lakhs on each vend as license fees annually.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Structural-Functionalism and Conflict Theory

Theories in sociology provide us with different positionings with which to view our companionable world. A vista is simply a way of looking at the world. A theory is a set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question or stockulate a particular phenomenon it provides us with a perspective. Sociological theories help us to explain and predict the favorable world in which we live. Sociology includes three major theory-based perspectives the structural-functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, and the symbolic interactionist perspective.Each perspective offers a variety of explanations ab break finished the causes of and possible solutions for hearty problems (Rubington & Weinberg, 1995). Structural-Functionalist Perspective The structural-functionalist perspective is largely based on the industrial plant of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. According to structural-functionalist, society is a constitutio n of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and neighborly equilibrium for the whole.For example, each of the social institutions contri hardlyes important functions for society family provides a context for reproducing, nurturing, and socializing children education offers a way to carry on societys skills, knowledge, and culture to its youth authorities provides a means of governing members of society economics provides for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and religion provides moral guidance and an outlet for worship of a higher power.The structural-functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts. For example, the increase in single-parent and dual-earner families has contributed to the number of children who are failing in school because parents have become less available to supervise their childrens homew ork. Due to changes in technology, colleges are offering more technical programs, and m some(prenominal) another(prenominal) adults are locomote to school to learn new skills that are required in the workplace.The increasing number of women in the workforce has contributed to the formation of policies against sexual harassment and job discrimination. attachment In viewing society as a set of interrelated parts, structural-functionalists also note that proposed solutions to a social problem whitethorn cause spare social problems. For example, racial imbalance in public schools led to forced integration, which in turn generated violence and increased hostility between the races. The use of justification bargaining was adopted as a means of dealing with overcrowded court dockets but resulted in the revolving door of justice. Urban renewal projects often displaced residents and broke up community cohesion. Structural-functionalist use the terms functional and dysfunctional to descr ibe the effects of social elements on society. Elements of society are functional if they contribute to social stableness and dysfunctional if they disrupt social stability. Some aspects of society may be both functional and dysfunctional for society. For example, crime is dysfunctional in that it is associated with physical violence, overtaking of property, and fear.But, according to Durkheim and other functionalists, crime is also functional for society because it leads to heightened awareness of shared moral bonds and increased social cohesion. Sociologists have identified both types of functions unequivocal and latent (Merton, 1968). Manifest functions are consequences that are intended and commonly recognized. Latent functions are consequences that are unintended and often hidden. For example, the manifest function of education is to transmit knowledge and skills to societys youth. ut public elementary schools also serve as baby-sitters for employed parents, and college offe r a place for young adults to meet potential matess. The baby-sitting and mate selection functions are not the intended or commonly recognized functions of educationhence, they are latent functions. Structural-Functionalist Theories of Social Problems Two dominant theories of social problems grew out of the structural-functionalist perspective social pathology and social disorganization. Social Pathology According to the social pathology model, social problems result from some sickness in society.Just as the human organic structure becomes ill when our systems, organs, and cells do not function normally, society becomes ill when its parts (i. e. , elements of the structure and culture) no longer perform properly. For example, problems such(prenominal) as crime, violence, poverty, and juvenile iniquity are often attributed to the breakdown of the family institution, the decline of the religious institution, and inadequacies in our economic, educational, and political institutions. Social illness also results when members of a society are not adequately socialized to adopt its norms and surveys.Persons who do not value honesty, for example, are prone to dishonesties of all sorts. Early theorists attributed the failure in socialization to sick people who could not be socialized. Later theorists recognized that failure in the socialization process stemmed from sick social conditions, not sick people. To prevent or straighten out social problems, members of society must receive proper socialization and moral education, which may be accomplished in the family, schools, churches, workplace, and/or by dint of the media.Social disarrangement According to the social disorganization view of social problems, rapid social change disrupts the norms in a society. When norms become weak or are in conflict with each other, society is in a state of anomie or normlessness. Hence, people may steal, physically villainy their spouse or children, abuse drugs, bollix up or e ngage in other deviant behavior because the norms regarding their behaviors are weak or conflicting.According to this view, the solution to social problem lies in slowing the pace of social change and strengthening social norms. For example, although the use of alcohol by teenagers is considered a violation of a social norm in our society, this norm is weak. The media portray young people imbibition alcohol, teenagers teach each other to drink alcohol and buy fake identification cards (IDs) to corrupt alcohol, and parents model drinking behavior by having a few drinks after work or at a social event.Solutions to teenage drinking may involve strengthening norms against it through public education, restricting media depictions of youth and alcohol, imposing stronger sanctions against the use of fake IDs to purchase alcohol, and educating parents to model moderate and responsible drinking behavior. remainder Perspective Whereas the structural-functionalist perspective views society as comprising different parts working together, the conflict perspective views society as comprising different groups and interests competing for power and resources.The conflict perspective explains various aspects of our social world by looking at which groups have power and benefit from a particular social arrangement. The origins of the conflict perspective crumb be traced to the degreeic works of Karl Marx. Marx suggested that all societies go through stages of economic sufferment. As societies evolve from agricultural to industrial, concern over meeting survival ask is replaced by concern over making profit, the hallmark of a capitalist system.Industrialization leads to the development of two classes of people the bourgeoisie, or the owners of the means of production (e. g. , factories, farms, businesses), and the proletariat, or the worker who earn wages. The division of society into two broad classes of peoplethe haves and the have-notsis beneficial to the owners of the means of production. The workers, who may earn only subsistence wages, are denied access to the many resources available to the wealthy owners. According to Marx, the bourgeoisie use their power to control the institutions of society to their advantage.For example, Marx suggested that religion serves as an opiate of the masses in that it soothes the distress and suffering associated with the project lifestyle and focuses workers attention on spirituality, God, and the afterlife alternatively than on such worldly concerns as living conditions. In essence, religion diverts the workers so that they concentrate on being rewarded in heaven for living a moral life rather than on questioning exploitation. Conflict Theories of Social Problems There are two general types of conflict theories of social problems Marxist and non-Marxist.Marxist theories focus on social conflict that results from economic inequalities non-Marxist theories focus on social conflict that results form competing va lues and interests among social groups. Note Non-Marxist theories are also referred to as neo-Marxist theoriesnon and neo are interchangeable. Marxist Conflict Theories According to contemporary Marxist theorists, social problems result from class inequality inherent in a capitalistic system. A system of haves and have-nots may be beneficial to the haves but often translate into poverty for the have-nots. numerous social problems, including physical and mental illness, low educational achievement, and crime are associate to poverty. In addition to creating an impoverished class of people, capitalism also encourages corporeal violence. Corporate violence may be defined as actual harm and/or risk of harm inflicted on consumers, workers, and the general public as a result of decisions by corporate executives or manages. Corporate violence may also result from corporate negligence, the quest for profits at any cost, and willful violation of health, safety, and environmental laws (H ills, 1987).Our profit-motivated economy encourages individuals who are otherwise good, kind, and law-abiding to knowingly participate in the manufacturing and marketing of defective brakes on American jets, fuel tanks on automobiles, and contraceptive devices (intrauterine devices IUDs). The profit motive has also caused individuals to sell defective medical devices, toxic pesticides, and contaminated foods to developing countries. Blumberg (1989) suggests that in an economic system based exclusively on motives of self-interests and profit, such behavior is inevitable (p. 06). Marxist conflict theories also focus on the problem of alienation, or powerlessness and nonsense in peoples lives. In industrialized societies, workers often have little power or control over their jobs, which fosters a sense of powerlessness in their lives. The vary nature of work requires workers to perform limited and repetitive tasks as a result, the workers may come to feels that their lives are meanin gless. Alienation is bred not only in the workplace, but also in the classroom.Students have little power over their education and often find the curriculum is not meaningful to their lives. Like poverty, alienation is linked to other social problems, such as low educational achievement, violence, and suicide. Marxist explanations of social problems imply that the solution lies in eliminating inequality among classes of people by creating a classless society. The nature of work must also change to avoid alienation. Finally, stronger controls must be applied to corporations to ensure that corporate decisions and practices are based on safety rather than profit considerations.Non-Marxist Conflict Theories Non-Marxist conflict theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf are concerned with conflict that arise when groups have opposing values and interests. For example, antiabortion activists value the life of unborn embryos and fetuses prochoice activists value the right of women to control their own body and reproductive decisions. These different value positions reflect different subjective interpretations of what constitutes a social problem. For antiabortionists, the availability of abortion is the social problem for prochoice advocates, restrictions on abortion are the social problem.Sometimes the social problem is not the conflict itself, but rather the way that conflict is expressed. Even just about prolife advocates agree that shooting doctors who perform abortions and blowing up abortion clinics constitute unnecessary violence and lack of respect for life. prize conflicts may occur between diverse categories of people, including nonwhites versus whites, heterosexuals versus homosexuals, young versus old, Democrats versus Republicans, and environmentalists versus industrialists.Solutions to the problems that are generated by competing values may involve ensuring that conflicting groups comprehend each others views, settle differences through negotiation or media tion, or agreeing to disagree. Ideally, solutions should be win-win both conflicting groups are satisfied with the solution. However, outcomes of value conflicts are often influenced by power the group with the most power may use its position to influence the outcome of value conflicts.For example, when Congress could not get all states to voluntarily increase the legal drinking age to 21, it threatened to withdraw federal highway funds from those that would not comply. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Both the structural-functionalist and the conflict perspectives are concerned with how broad aspects of society, such as institutions and large groups, influence the social world. This level of sociological analysis is called macro sociology It looks at the big picture of society and suggests how social problems are unnatural at the institutional level.Micro sociology, another level of sociological analysis, is concerned with the social psychological dynamics of individuals inter acting in small groups. Symbolic interactionism reflects the micro sociological perspective and was largely influenced by the work of early sociologists and philosophers such as Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, William Isaac Thomas, Erving Goffman, and Howard Becker. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that human behavior is influenced by definitions and meanings that are created and maintained through symbolic interactions with others.Sociologist William Isaac Thomas (1931 1966) emphasized the importance of definitions and meanings in social behavior and its consequences. He suggested that humans respond to their definition of a situation rather than to the accusive situation itself. Hence, Thomas noted that situations we define as real become real in their consequences. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that our identity or sense or self is shaped by social interaction. we develop our self-concept by observing how others interact with us and label us. By observing how others view us, we see a reflection of ourselves that Cooley calls the looking glass self. Lastly, the symbolic interaction perspective has important implications for how social scientist conduct research. The German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) argued that in order to understand the individual and group behavior, social scientists must see the world from the eyes of that individual or group. Weber called this approach Verstehen, which in German means empathy. Verstehen implies that in conducting research, social scientists must try to understand others view of reality and the subjective aspects of their experiences, including their symbols, values, attitudes, and beliefs.Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Social Problems A basic premise of symbolic interactionist theories of social problems is that a condition must be defined or recognized as a social problem in order for it to be a social problem. Based on this premise, Herbert Blumer (1971) sugg ested that social problems develop in stages. First, social problems pass through the stage of societal recognitionthe process by which a social problem, for example, drunk driving, is born. Second, social legalisation takes place when the social problem achieves recognition by the larger community, including the media, schools, and churches.As the visibility of traffic fatalities associated with alcohol increased, so the the legitimation of drunk driving as a social problem. The next stage in the development of a social problem involves mobilization for action, which occurs when individuals and groups, such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving, become concerned about how to respond to the social condition. This mobilization leads to the development and implementation of an official plan for dealing with the problem, involving, for example, highway checkpoints, lower legal blood-alcohol levels, and tougher drunk driving regulations.Blumers stage development view of social problems is h elpful in tracing the development of social problems. For example, although sexual harassment and date rape have occurred throughout this century, these issues did not begin to receive recognition as social problems until the 1970s. Social legitimation of these problems was achieved when high schools, colleges, churches, employers, and the media recognized their existence. Organized social groups mobilized to develop and implement plans to deal with these problems.For example, groups successfully lobbied for the enactment of laws against sexual harassment and the enforcement of sanctions against violators of these laws. Groups mobilized to provide educational seminars on date rate for high school and college students and to offer assist services to victims of date rape. Some disagree with the symbolic interactionist view that social problems exist only if they are recognized. According to this view, individuals who were victims of date rape in the sixties may be considered victims of a problem, even though date rape was not recognized at that time as a social problem.Labeling theory, a major symbolic interactionist theory of social problems, suggests that a social condition or group is viewed as problematic if it is labeled as such. According to labeling theory, resolving social problems sometimes involves changing the meanings and definitions that are attributed to people and situations. For example, as long as teenagers define drinking alcohol as cool and fun, they will celebrate to abuse alcohol.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Demography and Stable Fertility Replacement

A snow is quite long anything and many an(prenominal) things could change in cytosine age. Our world population and stinkiness grade for one thing. Currently authentic countries either realise a declining population or a broadly plowing stable fertility reliever level. However, most developing countries still check an ever-increasing population, which has quite a a couple of(prenominal) negative effects on health, economy, etc. Will they stabilize in the next hundred years? I believe in that location is a huge possibility for them to indeed stabilize.With an ever-increasing global village, thanks to brotherly networks, different people in different countries are becoming more and more like-minded. These developing countries return more access to the media and the oer all mind sets of developed countries. I am originally from azimuth in the USA, but have been living in South Africa for the past 4 years. I tolerate sense a outstanding change between the thought patte rns among older generations of this country and those of the youth.Even those living in the impoverished townships have recognize access to current Hollywood movies, Internet, and current music. This access allows all of them to speak English along with venture with a more westernized mindset. Where the older generations want as many children as possible so that their children pass on take care of them in old age, and because of lobola (where a potential save must pay his fiances parents roughly $5000 to marry her).But the youth nowadays want to seduce secondary educations, and want to have smaller healthy families, because they desire to be more like Americans. If such access is available in other developing countries I believe they will have a more stable fertility rate at some point in the next 100 years. These governments however will indigence to have active policies. It is no use knowing you withdraw contraceptives, when you cannot contract contraceptives. Without the support of governments and health facilities, fair sex and couples just may give up trying to plan their children.While belongings independence in tact, governments need to have simple policies that allow for choice. Basically just giving the availableness of contraceptives, family planning, and health facilities (some forced things could be sexual education in school). Freedom of choice should not be taken from them rather policies to join on their choices so they can better take control of their individual lives and that of their families or planned family.Demography and Stable Fertility ReplacementA century is quite long anything and many things could change in 100 years. Our world population and fertility rates for one thing. Currently developed countries either have a declining population or a mostly stable fertility replacement level. However, most developing countries still have an ever-increasing population, which has quite a few negative effects on health, economy, etc. Will they stabilize in the next hundred years? I believe there is a huge possibility for them to indeed stabilize.With an ever-increasing global village, thanks to social networks, different people in different countries are becoming more and more like-minded. These developing countries have more access to the media and the over all mind sets of developed countries. I am originally from Arizona in the USA, but have been living in South Africa for the past 4 years. I can sense a dramatic change between the thought patterns among older generations of this country and those of the youth.Even those living in the impoverished townships have complete access to current Hollywood movies, Internet, and current music. This access allows all of them to speak English along with think with a more westernized mindset. Where the older generations want as many children as possible so that their children will take care of them in old age, and because of lobola (where a potential husband must pay hi s fiances parents roughly $5000 to marry her).But the youth nowadays want to get secondary educations, and want to have smaller healthy families, because they desire to be more like Americans. If such access is available in other developing countries I believe they will have a more stable fertility rate at some point in the next 100 years. These governments however will need to have active policies. It is no use knowing you need contraceptives, when you cannot get contraceptives. Without the support of governments and health facilities, woman and couples just may give up trying to plan their children.While keeping independence in tact, governments need to have simple policies that allow for choice. Basically just giving the availability of contraceptives, family planning, and health facilities (some forced things could be sexual education in school). Freedom of choice should not be taken from them rather policies to increase their choices so they can better take control of their ind ividual lives and that of their families or planned family.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

The Historical Relevance of Masculine and Feminine Spaces Within the Home

This essay provide analyze the historical relevancy of the thought of manful and distaff un bounds in spite of appearance the stance and whether these thoughts be still evident in a 21stcentury south-central African context. This analysis will be done by utilizing the ideals set(p) on the prudish Household and the psychological sexual practice of the blank spaces, by opineing into cardinal unconditioneds within the De Villiers habitation place and how the be after intercessions used in their place be relevant or irrelevant to the thought of masculine and feminine inexhaustibles. Through looking at tw ain Public and Private Spaces within the syndicate this extent will be analysed.The Victorian age is an term that has held a batch of imageism to our current civilization. It has been the cause of some great argument to the highest degree the gender regions on work forces and adult distaffs for centuries ( Forty 1986 110 ) . The Victorian epoch held the stronge st grounds for inquiries to be asked about the reside and what went on in doors ( Forty 1986 109 ) . Our current society still lives by some of the regulations that were placed into the place environment, though a few act upons may be reversed or neutralised. When looking at the cardinal civilization of the Victorian epoch the several(prenominal) has to analyze the in- amongst form to upper category families that held to a greater extent than than than than three drivees and had suites that were gender orientated ( Forty 1986 106 ) . As domestic environments have come to be regarded as marks of the re statusnts characters, people have gone to great lengths to show a satisfactory biography of themselves. ( Forty 1986 106 )As people we base a big sum of what we think of a individual or home plate on their life conditions and therefore we project the coveted sentiment that we want from others onto our ain life distances, to be perceived in a trustworthy manner. This was a outlook that was seen in the Victorian epoch as good and predicted the hereafter of you and you relatives ( Forty 1986 102 ) . The Home was seen as a category symbol that would project the wealth and position of the household that lived within ( Forty 1986 101 ) . This was an of import set of cognizing who to socialize with and what their face-to-face worth would be to you.Sexs can merely be adequately evaluated in relation to their broader ethnical contexts ( Smyth 199220 ) . This can find if one or both spouses in a heterosexual kin tend to be either more feminine or masculine in the relationship. Cavallaro ( 2001115 ) provinces thatAnti-essentialists do non deny that work forces and adult womanishs are biologically and anatomically unlike. However, they argue that maleness and muliebrity are non dateless worlds grounded in natural Torahs but really cultural constructs that change significantly through clipping and space.The sex of the individual does non impact the gender fun ction that they have. How that will impact the relationship within the place in footings of the interior manner harmonizing to the gender function that is more prevailing.The De Villiers household place is a family that is normally found in South African, a mix of Afrikaans plaas and English City outlook ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The female parent was brought up in Johannesburg and the male parent on a farm in Nelspruit ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The family consists of the female parent, Debbi and the male parent, Lewis with their three boies over 21 life with them ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The household has a mania for hosting friends and household in their infinites, this has do some design picks important in the house ( De Villiers 2015 ) . Debbi Studied to be a year 5 instructor, but after holding her first boy chose to raise their kids as a block at place Mother ( De Villiers 2015 ) . At this phase the male parent had a large portion in the design picks and certain things like flower ed forms and coloring materials were non allowed to play a function in the communal infinites ( De Villiers 2015 ) . Debbi decided to make her ain drapes for the house and this shortly after became a concern that was imparting in more money than the building Job that Lewis had ( De Villiers 2015 ) . They shortly started to work together and this is when the alteration in the house happened and the opportunity for Debbi to convey Hints of florals into the house ( De Villiers 2015 ) .The house is over 85 old ages old and was renovated cardinal old ages past to modernize some of the characteristic and add to some of the infinites in the house ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The household hosts a big aggregation of familial old-timers that have been reupholstered to accommodate the manner of the house ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The mix between modern-day and old signifier a balance in this impersonal coloring material scheme place. The latest way of life to be redecorated was the telecasting board in February 2015 ( De Villiers 2015 ) . The outside is a common South African face brick outside. In the Victorian clip the work forces had area over what the outside of the house was to be this was because the exterior universe was a mans universe ( Forty 1986 104 ) . A masculine outside was seen every bit superior as it improved the power position of the household that lived within the house, if the outside was more feminine the house was seen as surrounding on a infantile look ( Ehrnberger, Rasanen & A Ilstedt 2012 89 ) . The outside of the De Villiers house is masculine but the garden softens the exterior and makes the boilersuit optical aspect more impersonal.As one enter the house you walk onto a raised course of study that forms the transition to the private countries of the house and the mankind countries, this can be seen on the diagrammatic in look-alike 1. The entryway looks into the unfastened program titular life room ( insure 1 and 2 ) . This room would be the equivalent to the music room and pulling room in a Victorian family. The infinite is divided into three defined sections the first a Lounge country that is symmetrical with Colour doing the infinite asymmetrical, seen in go steady 2 a seating country of two wingback chairs that has a tabular pasture with household images and other memorabilia, seen in Figure 2 and a Music country that has the piano and a music base, the piano has memorabilia on top of it, seen in Figure 2. The soft trappingss are in a bulk impersonal roof of the mouth with ruddy shock absorbers and pale blues or florals ( Figure 2 & A 3 ) being brought through, this a feminine manner of adorning the infinite ( Kinchin 1996 13 ) . The dreary forests of all the difficult furniture is a masculine trait ( Kinchin 1996 13 ) . Boundaries between interior heed and outward aesthetic look were turning of all time more indistinct ( Sidlavskas 199670 ) . The overall design of the room is more feminine with the Phot ographs and shows of workss and embroideries throughout the infinite, these embroideries of the room can be seen as a nostalgic component of a more feminine nature of retrieving things from the yesteryear ( Morley 2002 58 ) .The following infinite is the formal dining room that is away the kitchen and Formal life room, as can be seen in Figure 1. Figure 4 shows the full infinite of the dining room. Chiefly done in sad trappingss with a few cosmetic points. The room is more masculine with a strong contrast to the Formal life room. The Fire topographical point has a feminine expression to it and has been in the house since it was sooner built. The furniture is all repurposed household old-timers. The images on the walls are prints and picture of work forces. These elements make the room more masculine and as it is more purpose decorated, therefore it has a more serious feel to it. This infinite is non a common used infinite and is kept for particular occasions where in the Victori an epoch it would hold been the closely used room and the biggest position symbol in the house ( Kinchin 1996 16 ) . This recitation of the dining room would besides touch to the Victorian ideal of the stating man of the House and this would hence enquire the infinite to come across more masculine to demo the ownership of the house unit.The outdoor supply infinite that is off the dining room, seen in Figure 1, is a infinite used to observe household events. Morley ( 2002 19 ) negotiations about the demand of the household to portion take in rites ( Birthdays, Easter and Christmas jubilations ) in certain countries of the house as a manner of demoing an appearance of proper household relations . This infinite in the De Villiers house is the Main terrace, which has been designed to be an amusement country. This country was added to the house ten old ages ago and has been used to observe a broad scope of events, every bit good as a favorite infinite to go game clip with one anothe r. This infinite is a multi-purpose infinite that brings in the households love of nature into the infinite with the garden surrounding the infinite. This natural component is seen as a feminine side and with the swerving hookeds and lighter colorss. the overall infinite has more of a feminine feel to the infinite.The Family Sitting room that is off the dining room, seen in Figure 1, is the most used infinite by the full household. grace in a Postmodern manner that is emotionally decorated ( Figure 6 ) and non functionally decorated, stressing a alone and daring combination of heterogenous furniture elements all favoured for their reliable integrity merits ( Cieraad 1999 9 ) . This infinite was redesigned in February and hence the gender function of the room has changed. All the dark wood trappingss have been limited and some painted white to give a softness to the difficult furniture. The walls have been repainted in a impersonal coloring material, while the coloring material bl ue has been brought in with florals and forms to equilibrize masculine and feminine in the room ( Figure 6 ) . The room that was predominately the sons haven hence more masculine, has become a shared nervous infinite for the whole households use.The sons quiescence inhabit are each different and fit each of their personalities. The oldest sons sleeping room ( examine 18 ) is bedroom 3. The color strategy is really similar to the remainder of the house with a more impersonal gender function. The in-between sons sleeping room ( figure 15 and 16 ) is merely decorated with blues and a few points on his desk. The youngest boy ( figure 17 ) has the most points in his sleeping room and has a big about of memorabilia in the room. The color strategy is blue and green. The male childs have masculine suites. We must recognize that frequently place is a contested sphere an sphere where differing involvements struggle to specify their ain infinites within which to place and cultivate their i dentity stated by Ehrnberger ( Rasanen & A Ilstedt 2012 57 ) . Each of the boies are seeking to happen their ain individuality in their single suites and therefore their suites are a contrast to the overall manner of the house.The chief sleeping room suit that is off the chief passageway next to bedroom 1, seen in Figure 1, is the oasis in the house for the hubby and married woman. Figure 7 to 14 show the full suit. Each infinite has a different gender function and this shows who the infinite was designed more for the people populating within it. The sleeping room shown in figure 7, 8 and 9, is less dramatiseally designed so the public infinites. The trappingss are in in general impersonal colorss with really small modeling on them. Each dark base has a different entreaty. There is a little terrace and seating country for the hubby and married woman to pass clip with each other in their shared infinite. The wifes dark base ( figure 7 ) is round with a table fabric doing it softer , it has a works and a little lamp on the tabular adjust along with a few books and other points. Along with her dressing tabular array it marks her single infinite within the room. The hubbys nightstand ( figure 8 ) has a pendant hanging over it, the base is made of a dark wood and has hemorrhoids of books on the base. The husbands side of the bed is closest to his survey. The surface of a room, the form of an object, its coloring material, can animate misgiving or even antipathy objects become marks of a great figure of little actions capital of Minnesota Bourget ( Sidlauskas 199673 ) . The single infinites within the shared infinites are strongly defied unlike the remainder of the house.The suites off the sleeping room each have more masculine traits. The survey ( Figure 10 and 11 ) off the chief sleeping room is overruning with jumble and books. This infinite seems mussy but is a well-used infinite and is the husbands chief infinite for himself in the house. The atrium off th e infinite shows the demand for single infinite in the garden country for him every bit good. The bathroom seen in figure 13 and 14, shows a more masculine infinite with the usage of dark forests along the impersonal colors. There is really small ornament other than two pictures and a chair that has been placed in the infinite. The bathroom is more of a topographic point of map so emotion, doing the infinite more masculine ( Morley 2002 57 ) .The De Villiers house was designed in a Gallic manner that would take one to believe that the muliebrity of that manner of design would be the most outstanding gender function within their house. This house shows that through the people the infinite is made a place and their personal gender functions, along with the functionality of each infinite determines the overall gender function of each infinite. Rothchild ( 1999 11 ) negotiations about the alteration in ownership functions of the house due to the workplace passing more feminine. This al lows one to see that the household unit has a more balanced Gender function family due to Debbie and Lewis working together as co-owners of a concern, though Debbie now has a more design pick in the house. The private infinites applies to the person that spends the most sum of clip within that infinite. While the public infinite tend to be more masculine with feminine touches or elements being brought in to equilibrate the infinite. The outside of this house does non hold an consequence on the overall gender function within the house. From my personal position, the De Villiers house tends to keep a more balanced sum of masculine and feminine gender infinites, though feminine elements outweigh the masculine elements in the public infinites. The overall design manner of the house be consistent throughout the infinite.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Coffea arabica Essay

I. A. About the assiduity hot chocolate is a brewed beverage with a distinct aroma and flavor, prep atomic number 18d from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. A java berry plant is usually a bush or small tree that begets to 10-12 feet (although it pot grow up to 32 feet) and can produce coffee berry beans for decades. It can live for between 60 and 70 years. It can take up to four years for a coffee tree to reach adulthood and bear fruit. The English word coffee originates from the Arabic word kaweh meaning strength or vigor.The seeds ar found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, in the beginning in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Africa. Green (unroasted) coffee is oneness of the just about traded uncouth commodities in the world. umber is slightly acidic (pH 5. 05. 1) and can have a stimulating proceeds on humans because of its caffeine content. Commercial coffee is grown in an area between the tropics o f Cancer and Capricorn affectionately known as the bean belt. In order for the coffee plant to thrive, it needs moderate sunshine and rain, porous soil and constant temperatures between 65 and 75?F. Before the coffee bean can be used to make coffee, it has to be roasted. The roasting subprogram convinces the color of the immature coffee beans. First they turn yellow and past brown. The longer they roast the darker they become. The strongest roasts head in black beans. At the same sentence, the heat causes changes in the taste and smell of the beans. Aromatic oils are released that bring out the flavor of coffee. In the nineteenth century, people roasted their coffee at al-Qaida on their stoves or over open fires. Nowadays, the commercial coffee roasters use enormous ovens to roast the coffee.Temperature and time are carefully controlled, sometimes by computers, because just a few seconds can dramatically change the final flavor of the coffee. The roasting can be done in just a minute. In general, a light roast gives a mild taste, a medium roast produces a come uprounded, rich flavor and aroma and a high roast gives a strong, distinctive flavor. Coffee is one of the most consumed drinks after body of water. Coffee is one of the most traded commodities in the world after oil. Over 1400 one thousand thousand cups of coffee are drunk around the world each day. The majority of coffee is consumed at breakfast.Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are also the most highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the robusta form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The last mentioned is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepar ed and presented in a variety of ways.An important export commodity, coffee was the blow over rural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the worlds seventh-largest legal agricultural export by encourage in 2005. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market. The top 10 coffee-producing countries are Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Guatemala , Vietnam, Cote dIvoire, Mexico and Uganda. The emotional and physical benefits of coffee are numerous. Not only does coffee taste good, it can stimulate, relax and refresh the trunk.Coffee stimulates the senses by dint of its caffeine content which stimulates metabolism and supports mental alertness and concentration. The body absorbs it within 30 minutes, and its positive effects may last 2-5 hours. Coffee relaxes the body because it hydrates it. Because water is the main ingredient in a cup of coffee, it helps the body work towards its daily water needs and is practically free of calories. Coffee also refreshes the body with its wealth of polyphenols. Polyphenols are nutrients that help go along the body in good health over time.They are also found in green tea, fruits and cocoa. B. Brief History of Coffee The history of coffee goes at least as far fundament as the thirteenth century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goat herder who discovered coffee while peeping for his goats, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and Northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Balkans, Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, Asia and then to America. Wi ld coffees energizing effect was credibly first discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies that were in competition with the Christian Church.As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. The beverage was also banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with disobedient political activities in Europe In the Philippines, coffee has a history as rich as its flavor, says the National Coffee Development Board (NCDB), whose main objective is to develop and promote the Philippine coffee industry through technical assistance and credit programs for coffee farms and through marketing and promotions of coffee for domestic he lp and export markets.History records show that the first coffee tree was introduced in Lipa, Batangas in 1740 by a Spanish Franciscan monk. From there, coffee growing spread to other parts of Batangas like Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan. Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the Philippines. By the 1860s, Batangas was exporting coffee to America through San Francisco, the NCDB- records. When the Suez Canal was opened, a new market started in Europe as well.Seeing the success of the Batangenos, Cavite followed courting by growing the first coffee seedlings in 1876 in Amadeo. In spite of this, Lipa still reigned as the center for coffee production in the Philippines and Batangas barako was commanding five times the price of other Asian coffee beans. In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth largest exporter of coffee beans, and. when the coffee rust hit Brazil, Africa and Java (Indonesia) , it became the only seed of coffee beans around the world.The coffee rust disease almost wiped it out during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Coffee registered a total production of 123, 934 metric tons valued at P6818, 18 gazillion in 1995. Today, however, the Philippines produces only . 012% of the worlds coffee supply. Efforts are being undertaken to revive the industry however, with the majority of coffee produced in the mountain areas of Batangas, Bukidnon, Benguet, Cavite, Kalinga, Apayao, Davao, and Claveria.